高中英语必修三Unit1 Nature in the Balance知识点精讲(1)

2024-03-04 12:36 来源: 文化之窗 本文影响了:82人

Unit1 Nature in the Balance

知识点1

The human race has done much harm.

人类已经造成了很大的伤害。

harm n.& vt.伤害,损害

※do harm to...对……有害

cause harm to...对……造成危害

There is no harm in doing sth.做某事并无害处。

※harmful adj.有害的

be harmful to...对……有害

※harmless adj.无害的

(1)What the hunters did ________ wildlife greatly.

这些猎人所做的事情大大伤害了野生动物。

(2)Some modern farming methods have done great harm ________ the soil.

一些现代的耕作方式对土地造成了很大的损害。

(3)There is no harm in ________ (live) in that region for a long time.

在那个地区长住也没有害处。

(4)The scientist said that this kind of air is ________(harm).

这位科学家说,这种空气是无害的。

[一句多译]

(5)在满是雾霾的空气中行走对我们很有害。

①Walking in the air full of haze ________ us.(harm)

②Walking in the air full of haze ________ us.(harmful)

知识点2

The forest’s different levels support an unbelievable variety of wildlife.

雨林的不同层次使种类多到难以置信的野生动物得以生存。

variety n不同种类;变化,多样性;变种,变体

※a variety of/varieties of各种各样的

※various adj.各种各样的;不同的

※vary v.改变;变化

vary from...to...由……到……不等

(1)Join us to taste ________fresh local food and drinks.

和我们一起品尝当地多种多样的新鲜的食物和饮料。

(2)They discussed ________(vary) matters all over the world.

他们讨论全世界的各种事情。

(3)Opinions on this matter ________.

对于这件事,每个人意见不一。

[温馨提示]

a variety of 各种各样的,修饰名词作主语时,谓语要用复数形式。但是the variety of (……的种类)修饰名词作主语时,谓语要用单数形式。

(4)A variety of nuts ________(be) on sale in that shop.

那个商店出售各种各样的坚果。

(5)The variety of nuts on sale in that shop ________(be) surprising.

那个商店出售的坚果品种多得惊人。

知识点3

Above that is the mass of leaf litter on the dark forest floor.

在那上面,在黑暗的森林地面上是大量的落叶。

mass n大量;团,块,堆;一大群;群众;大众 adj.大批的,广泛的

※a mass/masses of大量

the mass of大多数

注意:(1)在“the mass of+名词”作主语的句子中,后面的谓语动词与of后面的名词保持数的一致。

(2)在“a mass/masses of+名词”作主语的句子中,谓语动词的数与mass的数一致。

a mass/masses of既可以修饰可数名词也可以修饰不可数名词。

※massive adj.非常大的;巨大的

(1)The polar bear is found in the Arctic Circle and some big land ________ as far south as Newfoundland.

北极圈里发现了北极熊,和一些远到最南边的纽芬兰的大块陆地。

(2)The mass of people in that region ________(be) fond of peace.

那个地区的大多数人都热爱和平。

(3)There ________(be) masses of dark clouds in the sky today.

今天,天空乌云密布。

(4)I think that’s going to be a ________(mass) thing,at least here in New York.

我认为那将是一件非常大的事情,至少在纽约是。

知识点4

While a significant number of jaguars survive herethey are only one element of this forest’s food chain.

相当多的美洲豹在这里生存,但它们只是亚马孙雨林食物链的一个要素。

survive vi.生存,存活 vt.幸存,幸免于难

※survive sth.幸免于;从……活过来

survive on依靠……生活

survive sb.by...比某人多活……

※survival n.生存;幸存

※survivor n.生还者,幸存者

注意:不能说survive from/after/in the earthquake。

(1)His parents died in the earthquake,but he ________.

他的父母在地震中丧生了,但是他活了下来。

(2)How do you survive ________ such a low salary?

你是如何靠这么低的工资维持生计的?

(3)The old woman survived her husband ________ ten years.

老太太比她丈夫多活了十年。

(4)They will hold a party to celebrate his ________(survive).

他们要举行派对来庆祝他的幸免于难。

知识点5

These frogsin turnfeed on insects which eat leaves and fruit.

相应地,这些青蛙以昆虫为食,而昆虫则吃树叶和水果。

in turn相应地,转而;轮流,依次

turn around转身;好转

turn down调小;拒绝

turn into变成

turn off关闭

turn out结果是

(1)The customer praised the employer,who,________,praised his employees.

顾客表扬了老板,老板转而表扬了员工。

(2)The patients will be examined by the old doctor ________ tomorrow.

明天老医生会依次给这些病人检查身体。

(3)The party turned ________ to be very successful.

结果是派对开得很成功。

(4)When he turned ________,he found a beggar standing there.

他转身时发现一个乞丐站在那里。

(5)He turned ________ such a wonderful job,which made me surprised.

他拒绝了那样一个好工作,这让我感到诧异。

知识点6

When a jaguar diesa tiny army of microorganisms helps break down its body and return the nutrients to the earth.

当美洲豹死去时,一小群微生物帮助分解它的尸体并把养分还给大地。

break down 使分解(为),使变化(成);停止运转,出故障;(谈判等)失败;打破,消除;情不自禁地哭起来

[一词多义] 写出下列句子中break down的汉语意思

(1)On my way to the region,my car broke down.

(2)Talks between the two sides have broken down.

(3)Each lesson is broken down into several units.

(4)The “HAPPY TO CHAT” benches help break down the invisible social barrier that keeps people from saying hello.

(5)He broke down as he thought of his failure.

break up打碎;分裂,解体;结束;关系等破裂

break away from sb./sth.突然离开;脱离

break into破门而入;闯入

break out战争、火灾等爆发

(6)The police came running and broke ________ the crowd.

警察跑过来把人群驱散了。

(7)He decided to break away ________ home after graduation.

毕业后,他决定离开家。

(8)Does everyone know what to do if a fire breaks ________?

大家都知道火灾发生时该怎么办吗?

(9)Someone broke ________ my house and stole some money.

有人闯入了我的房子并偷走了一些钱。

知识点7

Over the past 50 years17 per cent of the rainforest has disappeared due to human activities such as agriculture and cattle farming.

在过去的50年里,由于农耕和养牛等人类活动,17%的雨林已经消失了。

due to由于,因为

※be due to do sth.预期做某事

be due to sb.应支付/归于某人

※表示“由于,因为”的短语还有:

because of,owing to,thanks to,on account of等。

(1)Many species disappeared from the earth ________ the bad climate.

因为气候恶劣,很多物种从地球上消失了。

(2)The band’s first album is due ________(come) out later this month.

这个乐队的第一张唱片预期在本月下旬发行。

(3)Have they been paid the money that is due ________ them?

他们应得的钱付给他们了吗?

(4)Thanks ________ his timely help,many villagers survived the disaster.

多亏了他及时的帮助,很多村民才从那场灾难中活了下来。

知识点8

As the impact of human activities continues to grow and the list of species in danger of extinction becomes longerwe are left with a question can we afford to damage the “lungs of the planet”

人类活动的影响不断增加,濒危物种的名单越来越长,这留给我们一个问题:我们能承担得起损害地球之肺的后果吗?

in danger of 处于……的危险中

常见的“in+n.+of”短语

in need of需要

in case of万一

in place of代替

in spite of尽管

in advance of在……前面

(1)Some species of birds are ________ extinction now.

有些种类的鸟现在处于灭绝的危险中。

(2)It is said the new school is ________ skilled teachers.

据说,这个新学校需要水平高的老师。

(3)Remember to press the red button ________ a fire.

如果发生火灾,记住按这个红色按钮。

(4)The young man will be ________ Mr Liu tomorrow.

明天这个年轻人将要代替刘先生。

(5)________so many difficulties,the girl will have a try.

尽管有这么多困难,女孩也要试一试。

damage vt.& n损坏,破坏;损害,伤害

do/cause damage to...对……造成损害

damage one’s health损害某人的健康

(6)He was hit by a car;thus he suffered serious brain ________.

他被车撞了,脑部严重损伤。

(7)I have a very strong fear that the lie we’re telling is ________ spiritual ________ our children.

我有一种强烈的恐惧:我们正在说的谎言会对我们的孩子们造成精神上的伤害。

(8)As we all know,eating too much fat will ________.

众所周知,摄入太多脂肪会损害我们的健康。

[高级表达]

(9)The damage which was caused by the earthquake was very serious.(用非谓语动词改写)

The damage ________ was very serious.

知识点9

The Amazon Riverfrom which the rainforest gets its nameis about 6400 kilometres in length...

亚马孙雨林得名自亚马孙河,亚马孙河长约6 400千米……

※from which the rainforest gets its name 是“介词+which” 引导的定语从句,修饰The Amazon River。

※“介词+关系代词”既可以引导限制性定语从句,也可以引导非限制性定语从句,不能用that代替which。

※类似的结构:“介词+whom”引导的定语从句修饰的先行词是人。

※介词的确定根据以下方面来选择:

(1)根据句意确定介词;

(2)定语从句中谓语动词或形容词与介词的搭配;

(3)表示所属关系或者表示“整体中的一部分”都用of。

(1)I bought many books about climate,________ I spent all my money that I saved.

我买了很多关于气候的书,这些书花了我积攒的所有钱。

(2)The school ________ which he once studied is very famous.

他以前上学的学校非常有名。

(3)I don’t know the person ________ whom you talked just now.

我不认识你刚才谈论到的那个人。

(4)The reason ________ which he left the band was that he hated the busy life.

他离开乐队的原因是他讨厌忙碌的生活。

(5)We had bought an old map ________ which we would have lost our way.

我们买了一张旧地图,要是没有它我们就会迷路。

知识点10

Of the 390000 plant species known to manmore than 40000 can be found in the Amazon.

在人类知道的三十九万植物物种中,超过四万种可以在亚马孙雨林中找到。

※过去分词短语known to man在句中作定语,修饰plants。

※过去分词短语作定语表示“被动含义”,必须后置,相当于一个定语从句;单个的过去分词作定语,常位于被修饰词之前,表示“被动或完成”。

(1)Join a ________ bike tour and view some of the most popular monuments in Washington,D.C.

加入一个有导游引领的自行车旅行,参观华盛顿的一些最受欢迎的纪念碑。

(2)I have something important to say.Can those ________(seat) at the back hear me?

我有重要的事情要说。坐在后面的那些人能听见我说话吗?

(3)The person ________(question) by the police gave a detailed description.

被警察询问的那个人给出了详细的描述。

[高级表达]

(4)The building which was completed three years ago is now in bad condition.(用非谓语动词改写)

The building ________ is now in bad condition.

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